Selected Publications


Microscale 3D Collagen Cell Culture Assays in Conventional Flat-Bottom 384-Well Plates.

Leung BM, Moraes C, Cavnar SP, Luker KE, Luker GD, Takayama S.

J Lab Autom. 2014 Dec 15.

Surface-templated hydrogel patterns prompt matrix-dependent migration of breast cancer cells towards chemokine-secreting cells.

Kojima T, Moraes C, Cavnar SP, Luker GD, Takayama S.

Acta Biomater. 2014 Nov 24. pii: S1742-7061(14)00536-4.

Macroscopic stiffness of breast tumors predicts metastasis.

Fenner J, Stacer AC, Winterroth F, Johnson TD, Luker KE, Luker GD.

Sci Rep. 2014 Jul 1;4:5512.

CXCL12-γ in primary tumors drives breast cancer metastasis.

Ray P, Stacer AC, Fenner J, Cavnar SP, Meguiar K, Brown M, Luker KE, Luker GD.

Oncogene. 2014 Jun 9;0. 

CXCR7 controls competition for recruitment of β-arrestin 2 in cells expressing both CXCR4 and CXCR7.

Coggins NL, Trakimas D, Chang SL, Ehrlich A, Ray P, Luker KE, Linderman JJ, Luker GD.

PLoS One. 2014 Jun 4;9(6):e98328. 

A Comprehensive Analysis of CXCL12 Isoforms in Breast Cancer1,2.

Zhao S, Chang SL, Linderman JJ, Feng FY, Luker GD.

Transl Oncol. 2014 May 13. pii: S1936-5233(14)00021-7.

Microfluidic source-sink model reveals effects of biophysically distinct CXCL12 isoforms in breast cancer chemotaxis.

Cavnar SP, Ray P, Moudgil P, Chang SL, Luker KE, Linderman JJ, Takayama S, Luker GD.

Integr Biol (Camb). 2014 May;6(5):564-76.

Split Gaussia luciferase for imaging ligand-receptor binding.

Luker KE, Luker GD.

Methods Mol Biol. 2014;1098:59-69.

Transfer, imaging, and analysis plate for facile handling of 384 hanging drop 3D tissue spheroids.

Cavnar SP, Salomonsson E, Luker KE, Luker GD, Takayama S.  

J Lab Autom. 2014 Apr;19(2):208-14.


NanoLuc reporter for dual luciferase imaging in living animals.

Stacer AC, Nyati S, Moudgil P, Iyengar R, Luker KE, Rehemtulla A, Luker GD.

Mol Imaging. 2013 Oct;12(7):1-13.

Allosteric peptide regulators of chemokine receptors CXCR4 and CXCR7.

Ehrlich A, Ray P, Luker KE, Lolis EJ, Luker GD.

Biochem Pharmacol. 2013 Nov 1;86(9):1263-71.

Sevick-Muraca EM, Akers WJ, Joshi BP, Luker GD, Cutler CS, Marnett LJ, Contag CH, Wang TD, Azhdarinia A. Advancing the translation of optical imaging agents for clinical imaging. Biomed Opt Express. 2013 Jan 1;4(1):160-70. doi: 10.1364/BOE.4.000160. Epub 2012 Dec 18.

Despite the development of a large number of promising candidates, few contrast agents for established medical imaging modalities have successfully been translated over the past decade. The emergence of new imaging contrast agents that employ biomedical optics is further complicated by the relative infancy of the field and the lack of approved imaging devices compared to more established clinical modalities such as nuclear medicine.

Salomonnson EStacer ACEhrlich ALuker KELuker GDImaging CXCL12-CXCR4 signaling in ovarian cancer therapy. PLoS One. 2013;8(1):e51500. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0051500. Epub 2013 Jan 23.

Chemokine CXCL12 and receptor CXCR4 have emerged as promising therapeutic targets for ovarian cancer, a disease that continues to have a dismal prognosis. CXCL12-CXCR4 signaling drives proliferation, survival, and invasion of ovarian cancer cells, leading to tumor growth and metastasis.


Salomonnson EMihalko LA, Verkhusha VV, Luker KELuker GDCell-based and in vivo spectral analysis of fluorescent proteins for multiphoton microscopy. J. Biomed. Opt. 17(9), 096001 (Sep 11, 2012). doi:10.1117/1.JBO.17.9.096001

Multiphoton microscopy of cells and subcellular structures labeled with fluorescent proteins is the state-of-the-art technology for longitudinal imaging studies in tissues and living animals. Successful analysis of separate cell populations or signaling events by intravital microscopy requires optimal pairing of multiphoton excitation wavelengths with spectrally distinct fluorescent proteins.

Mehta G, Hsiao AY, Ingram M, Luker GD, Takayama S. Opportunities and challenges for use of tumor spheroids as models to test drug delivery and efficacy.  J Control Release 2012; May 18 [Epub ahead of press].

Multicellular spheroids are three dimensional in vitro microscale tissue analogs. The current article examines the suitability of spheroids as an in vitro platform for testing drug delivery systems. Spheroids model critical physiologic parameters present in vivo, including complex multicellular architecture, barriers to mass transport, and extracellular matrix deposition.

Ray P, Mihalko LA, Coggins NL, Moudgil P, Ehrlich A, Luker KE, Luker GDCarboxy-terminus of CXCR7 regulates receptor localization and function.  Int J Biochem Cell Biol 2012;44(4):669-678.

To understand normal and pathologic functions of CXCR7 and advance development of therapeutic agents, there is a need to define structural domains that regulate this receptor. We generated mutants of CXCR7 with deletion of different lengths of the predicted intracellular tail and analyzed effects on CXCR7 signaling and function in cell-based assays.

Luker KE, Lewin SA, Mihalko LA, Schmidt BT, Winkler JS, Thomas DG, Luker GD Scavenging of CXCL12 by CXCR7 promotes tumor growth and metastasis of CXCR4-positive breast cancer cells.  Oncogene 2012; Jan 23. doi: 10.1038/onc.2011.633. [Epub ahead of print]

Mechanisms that regulate availability of CXCL12 in tumor microenvironments will substantially impact cancer progression and ongoing efforts to target the CXCL12-CXCR4 pathway for cancer chemotherapy. We used dual luciferase imaging to investigate CXCR7-dependent scavenging of CXCL12 in breast tumors in vivo and quantify effects of CXCR7 on tumor growth and metastasis of a separate population of CXCR4+ breast cancer cells.

Bunschoten A, Buckle T, Kuil J, Luker GD, Luker KE, Nieweg OE, van Leeuwen FW. Targeted non-covalent self-assembled nanoparticles based on human serum albumin.  Biomaterials 2012; 33(3):867-75.

Luker KE, Mihalko LA, Schimidt BT, Lewin SA, Ray P, Shcherbo D, Chudakov DM, Luker GDIn Vivo Imaging of Ligand Receptor Binding with Gaussia Luciferase Complementation. Nat Med 2012;18(1):172-177.

Studies of ligand-receptor binding and the development of receptor antagonists would benefit greatly from imaging techniques that translate directly from cell-based assays to living animals. We used Gaussia luciferase protein fragment complementation to quantify the binding of chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 12 (CXCL12) to chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 4 (CXCR4) and CXCR7.


Ray P, Lewin SA, Mihalko LA, Schmidt BT, Luker KE, Luker GD.  Noninvasive Imaging Reveals Inhibition of Ovarian Cancer by Targeting CXCL12-CXCR4.  Neoplasia 2011;13:1152-1161.

Ray P, Lewin, SA, Mihalko LA, Lesher-Perez SC, Takayama S, Luker, KELuker GD.  Secreted CXCL12 (SDF-1) Forms Dimers under Physiologic Conditions.  Biochem J 2012; 442(2):433-42.

Bhojani MS, Ranja R, Luker GD, Rehemtulla A, Ross BD, Van Dort ME. Synthesis and investigation of a radioiodinated F3 peptide analog as a SPECT tumor imaging radioligand.  PLoSOne 2011;6(7):e22418.

Cruz-Orengo L, Holman DW, Dorsey D, Zhou L, Zhang P, Wright M, McCandless EE, Patel JR, Luker GD, Littman DR, Russell JH, Klein RS. CXCR7 influences leukocyte entry into the CNS parenchyma by controlling abluminal CXCL12 abundance during autoimmunity. J Exp Med. 2011 Feb 14;208(2):327-39.

Luker GD, Luker KELuciferase protein complementation assays for bioluminescence imaging of cells and mice. Methods Mol Biol. 2011;680:29-43.


Elahi SF, Liu Z, Luker KE, Kwon RS, Luker GD, Wang TD. Longitudinal Molecular Imaging with Single Cell Resolution of Disseminated Ovarian Cancer in Mice with a LED-based Confocal Microendoscope. Mol Imaging Biol. 2010 Dec 7.

Galbán CJ, Galbán S, Van Dort ME, Luker GD, Bhojani MS, Rehemtulla A, Ross BD. Applications of molecular imaging. Prog Mol Biol Transl Sci. 2010;95:237-98.

Huang NT, Truxal SC, Tung YC, Hsiao AY, Luker GD, Takayama S, Kurabayashi K. Multiplexed spectral signature detection for microfluidic color-coded bioparticle flow. Anal Chem. 2010 Nov 15;82(22):9506-12.

Torisawa YS, Mosadegh B, Bersano-Begey T, Steele JM, Luker KE, Luker GD, Takayama S. Microfluidic platform for chemotaxis in gradients formed by CXCL12 source-sink cells. Integr Biol (Camb). 2010 Nov 2;2(11-12):680-6.

Shcherbo D, Shemiakina II, Ryabova AV, Luker KE, Schmidt BT, Souslova EA, Gorodnicheva TV, Strukova L, Shidlovskiy KM, Britanova OV, Zaraisky AG, Lukyanov KA, Loschenov VB, Luker GD, Chudakov DM. Near-infrared fluorescent proteins. Nat Methods. 2010 Oct;7(10):827-9.

Luker KE, Steele JM, Mihalko LA, Ray P, Luker GDConstitutive and chemokine-dependent internalization and recycling of CXCR7 in breast cancer cells to degrade chemokine ligands. Oncogene. 2010 Aug 12;29(32):4599-610.

Luker KELuker GDBioluminescence imaging of reporter mice for studies of infection and inflammation. Antiviral Res. 2010 Apr;86(1):93-100.


Torisawa YS, Mosadegh B, Luker GD, Morell M, O’Shea KS, Takayama S.  Microfluidic hydrodynamic cellular patterning for systematic formation of co-culture spheroids.  Integr Biol (Camb) 2009 Dec;1:649-654.

Tavana H, Jovic A, Mosadegh B, Yi LQ, Liu X, Luker KE, Luker GD, Weiss SJ, Takayama S. Nanoliter liquid patterning in aqueous environments for spatially-defined reagent delivery to mammalian cells.  Nat Mater. 2009 Sept;8:736-741.

Luker KE, Gupta M, Luker GD.  Bioluminescent CXCL12 fusion protein for cellular studies of CXCR4 and CXCR7.  Biotechniques 2009; 47(1):625-632.

Luker KE, Gupta M, Steele JM, Foerster BR, Luker GDImaging ligand-dependent activation of CXCR7. Neoplasia. 2009 Oct;11(10):1022-35.

Song JW, Cavnar SP, Walker AC, Luker KE, Gupta M, Tung YC, Luker GD (co-corresponding author), Takayama S. Microfluidic endothelium for studying the intravascular adhesion of metastatic breast cancer cells. PLoS One. 2009 Jun 1;4(6):e5756.

Luker KE, Gupta M, Luker GDImaging chemokine receptor dimerization with firefly luciferase complementation. FASEB J. 2009;23(3):823-34.

Luker KELuker GDReal-time bioluminescence imaging of viral pathogenesis. Methods Mol Biol. 2009;574:125-35.


Tkaczyk ER, Tkaczyk AH, Katnik S, Ye JY, Luker KELuker GD, Myc A, Baker JR Jr, Norris TB.  Extended cavity laser enhanced two-photon cytometry.  J Biomed Opt 2008; 13: 041319.

Pichler A, Prior JL, Luker GD, Piwnica-Worms D.  Generation of a highly inducible Gal4àFluc universal reporter mouse for in vivo bioluminescence imaging.  Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2008 Oct 14; 105:15932-7.

Hutchens MA, Luker KE, Sonstein J, Nunez G, Curtis JL, Luker GD.  Protective effect of Toll-like receptor 4 in pulmonary vaccinia infection.  PLoS Pathogens 2008; 4:e1000153.

Tkaczyk ER, Zhong CF, Ye JY, Myc A, Thomas T, Cao Z, Duran-Struuck R, Luker KELuker GD, Norris TB, Baker JR. In vivo monitoring of multiple circulating cell populations using two-photon flow cytometry. Optics Comm 2008;281:888-894.

Eliane JP, Repollet M, Luker KE, Brown M, Rae JM, Dontu G, Schott AF, Wicha M, Doyle GV, Hayes DF, Luker GD.  Monitoring serial changes in circulating human breast cancer cells in murine xenograft models.  Cancer Res 2008; 68:5529-32.

Luker KE, Gupta M, Luker GD Imaging CXCR4 signaling with firefly luciferase complementation.  Anal Chem 2008;80:5565-73.

Luker KELuker GD.  Applications of bioluminescence imaging to antiviral research and therapy: Multiple luciferase enzymes and quantitation.  Antiviral Res 2008; 78:179-87.

Hutchens M, Luker KE, Sottile P, Sonstein J, Lukacs NW, Nunez G, Curtis JL, Luker GD TLR3 increases disease morbidity and mortality from vaccinia infection.  J Immunol 2008;180:483-91.

Luker GD, Luker KE. Optical imaging: current applications and future directions. J Nucl Med 2008;49:1-4.

Bielinska AU, Chepurnov AA, Landers JJ, Janczak KW, Chepurnova TS, Luker GD, Baker JR Jr.  A novel, killed virus nasal vaccinia vaccine.  Clin Vaccine Immunol 2008;15:348-58.


Rudd BD, Luker GDLuker KE, Peebles RS, Lukacs NW.  Type I interferon regulates respiratory virus infected dendritic cell maturation and cytokine production.  Viral Immunol 2007;20:531-40.

Duran-Struuck R, Tawara I, Lowler K, Clouthier SG, Weisiger E, Rogers C, Luker GD, Kumanogoh A, Liu C, Ferrara JL, Reddy P.  A novel role for the semaphorin Sema4D in the induction of allo-responses.  Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2007;13:1294-1303.

Miao Z, Luker KE, Summers BC, Berahovich R, Bhojani MS, Rehemtulla A, Kleer CG, Luker GD (co-corresponding author), Howard MC, Schall TJ.  CXCR7 (RDC1) promotes breast and lung tumor growth in vivo and is expressed on tumor associated vasculature.  Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2007; 104: 15753-15740.

Yao Y, Li P, Singh P, Thiele AT, Wilkes DS, Renukaradhya GJ, Brutkiewicz RR, Travers JB, Luker GD, Hong SC, Blum JS, Chang CH. Vaccinia virus infection induces dendritic cell maturation but inhibits antigen presentation byMHC class II.  Cell Immunol. 2007;246:92-102.

Hutchens MLuker GD Applications of bioluminescence imaging to the study of infectious disease.  Cell Microbiol 2007; 9:2315-22.

Rivera R, Hutchens M, Luker KE, Sonstein J, Curtis JL, Luker GDMurine alveolar macrophages limit replication of vaccinia virus. Virology. 2007; 363:48-58.


Luker KE, Schultz T, Romine J, Leib D, Luker GD.  Transgenic reporter mouse for bioluminescence imaging of herpes simplex virus-1 infection in living mice.  Virology 2006; 347: 286-95.


Luker KE, Hutchens M, Schultz T, Pekosz A, Luker GDBioluminescence imaging of vaccinia virus: effects of interferon on viral replication and spread.  Virology 2005; 341: 284-300.


Smith MCP, Luker KE, Garbow JR, Prior JL, Jackson E, Piwnica-Worms D, Luker GD.  CXCR4 regulates growth of both primary and metastatic breast cancer.  Cancer Res 2004; 64: 8604-8612.

Luker KE, Smith MCP, Luker GD, Gammon ST, Piwnica-Worms H, Piwnica-Worms D.  Kinetics of regulated protein-protein interactions revealed with firefly luciferase complementation in cell and living animals. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2004; 101(33): 12288-12293.

Barreiro R, Luker GD, Herndon J, Ferguson TA.  Termination of antigen-specific immunity by CD95 ligand (Fas ligand) and IL-10.  J Immunol 2004; 173:1519-1525.

Krug A, Luker GD, Barchet W, Leib DA, Akira S, Colonna M.  Herpes simplex virus type 1 activates murine natural interferon-producing cells through toll-like receptor 9.  Blood 2004; 103:1433-1437.


Luker GD, Prior JL, Song J, Pica CM, Leib DA.  Bioluminescence imaging reveals systemic dissemination of HSV-1 in the absence of interferon receptors.  J Virol 2003; 77:11082-11093.

Luker GD, Pica CM, Song J, Luker KE, Piwnica-Worms D. Imaging 26S proteasome activity and inhibition in living mice.  Nat Med 2003; 9:969-973.

Luker GD, Sharma V, Pica CM, Prior JL, Li W, Piwnica-Worms D.  Molecular imaging of protein-protein interactions: controlled expression of p53 and Large T antigen fusion proteins in vivo.  Cancer Res 2003; 63:1780-8.

Richard JC, Zhou Z, Ponde DE, Dence CS, Factor P, Reynolds PN, Luker GD, Sharma V, Ferkol T, Piwnica-Worms D, Schuster DP.  Imaging pulmonary gene expression with positron emission tomography.  Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2003; 167:1257-63.


Luker GD, Bardill JP, Prior JL, Pica CM, Piwnica-Worms D, Leib DA.  Noninvasive bioluminescence imaging of Herpes Simplex Virus Type I (HSV-1) infection and therapy in living mice.  J Virol 2002; 76:12149-12161.

Luker GDLuker KE, Sharma V, Pica CM, Dahlheimer JL, Ocheskey JA, Fahrner TJ, Milbrandt J, Piwnica-Worms D.  In vitro and in vivo characterization of a dual-function green fluorescent protein-HSV1-thymidine kinase reporter gene driven by the human elongation factor 1a promoter. Molecular Imaging 2002; 1:65-73.

Luker GD, Sharma V, Pica CM, Dahlheimer JL, Lei W, Ochesky J, Ryan CE, Piwnica-Worms H, Piwnica-Worms D.  Non-invasive imaging of protein-protein interactions.  Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2002; 99:6691-6696.


Luker GD, Flagg TP, Sha Q, Luker KE, Pica CM, Nichols CG, Piwnica-Worms D. MDR1 P-glycoprotein reduces influx of substrates without affecting membrane potential.  J Biol Chem 2001; 276:49053-49060.

Luker GD, Dahlheimer JL, Ostlund RE Jr, Piwnica-Worms D. Decreased hepatic accumulation and enhanced esterification of cholesterol in mice deficient in mdr1a and mdr1b P-glycoproteins.  J Lipid Res 2001; 42:1389-1394.


Polyakov V, Sharma V, Dahlheimer JL, Pica CM, Luker GD, Piwnica-Worms D. Novel Tat-peptide chelates for direct transduction of technetium-99m and rhenium into human cells for imaging and radiotherapy.  Bioconjug Chem 2000; 11:762-771.

Luker GD, Pica CM, Kumar AS, Covey DF, Piwnica-Worms D.  Effects of cholesterol and enantiomeric cholesterol on P-glycoprotein localization and function in low-density membrane domains.  Biochemistry 2000; 39:7651-7661.